Socio-economic Review of Community Fisheries
MegaPesca Lda, Portugal


 

 

REGIONAL PROFILES

Austria
BELGIUM
DENMARK
FINLAND
FRANCE
GERMANY
GREECE
IRELAND
ITALY
LUXEMBOURG
NETHERLANDS
PORTUGAL
SPAIN
SWEDEN
UNITED KINGDOM

Austria
The Austrian fishery sector is small, comprising of fish farming and inland fishing only. The production from aquaculture (which concentrates on carp and trout) was 4,274 tonnes (value about ECU 12.7 million) in 1997 and the sector provided employment for some 300 full-time employees, 500 part-time jobs and around 1,500 seasonal jobs. There are a further 100 people employed in processing and related activities. In 1998, inland capture fisheries produced 454 tonnes, with a value of ECU 2.7 million. Employment extended to about 150 part-time jobs.

Belgium
In 1998 the Belgian fleet consisted of 148 vessels with a gross tonnage of 23,082 GT and power of 64,896kW. The average size of vessel is relatively higher than the rest of the EU fleet, with some 57 vessels longer than 30m. A significant part of the Belgian fleet is under Dutch ownership. Since 1991 the Belgian fleet numbers have dropped from 205 vessels to 148 vessels, corresponding to a 25% decrease in vessel numbers. Vessel numbers in 1998 fell by 4 compared to 1997 figures.

Belgian vessels caught about 30,325 tonnes of fish in 1998 (value ECU 103.4 million). Of this 72% was landed in Belgian harbours whilst the rest was sold at foreign auctions (mainly in Netherlands). The Belgian fishing sector provided employment for 745 people in 1997, of which 87 were estimated to work part time.  Employment in fishing is largely concentrated around the Brugge region, where 410 fishers were located.

There is no coastal aquaculture in Belgium although pilot projects for turbot and oyster farming have started recently. The Belgian inland aquaculture (trout and carp production) provided employment for 137 people.  About half (64) of these worked part time. Inland fisheries yielded 511 tonnes in 1998, but numbers employed in the sector are not significant.

Processing output was ECU 236.6 million in 1997. The larger processing firms are generally not dependent on local landings but rely on imports of frozen fish. In 1997 there were 1,261 people employed in the Belgian processing industry; this number includes wholesale traders and importers due to the fact that small scale processing and wholesaling are substantially integrated.  Employment is concentrated in the Oostende and Brugge region. It is estimated that almost half (569) of the workers are female.

Denmark
In 1998 the Danish fleet consisted of 4,648 vessels with a gross tonnage of 97,932 GT and power of 380,877 kW. Of the total, 70% of fishing vessels are less than 10 metres in length and only 5% over 20m in length. Total numbers of crew and skippers employed on fishing vessels was 6,361 people in 1998 (see Table 4). The larger vessels in the Danish fleet target herring for human consumption and sprat destined for fishmeal. Traditional fishing grounds are located in the North Sea Skagerrak/Kattegat and the Baltic Sea, with the main fishing ports located along the North and West coast of Jutland. Bornholm Island in the Baltic Sea is the centre for landing from the Baltic Sea. Cod, flatfish, Nephrops, mackerel and herring account for more than 60% of the value of landings in Danish ports.

  

Table 4: Employment in the Danish fishery sector, 1998

  

 

Full time

Total

Fishing

2710

6361

Smoking

1250

1931

Processing

4323

5220

Fishmeal

433

499

Wholesale

2282

3399

Retail

335

901

TOTAL

11333

18311

  

Table 5: Landings of fish in Denmark by source and destination, 1998

  

Destination

 

Danish vessels

Other EU vessels

Foreign vessels

All vessels

Tonnes

 ECU

Tonnes

 ECU

Tonnes

 ECU

tonnes

ECU

Human consumption

355,965

295,017,935

79,670

41,724,694

122,259

65,709,066

557,894

402,451,695

Fishmeal

1,106,682

152,389,690

145,165

17,051,992

95,844

11,684,424

1,347,691

181,126,105

Total

1,462,647

447,407,625

224,835

58,776,686

218,103

77,393,490

1,905,585

583,577,801

Source: Directorate of Fisheries, 1999. Yearbook of Fishery Statistics 1998. Danish Ministry of Fisheries

  

Landings in Denmark in 1998 are shown in Table 5. Total landings were 1.9 million tonnes with a value of ECU 583 million. Of this total, 70% is destined for reduction to fishmeal and oil. Landings by other EU and non-EU vessels in Danish ports are also significant, and are principally made by Sweden (mainly of fish for industrial purposes) and the United Kingdom.

In 1998 32,607 tonnes of fish was produced from freshwater aquaculture, and 7,089 tonnes of trout was produced in marine culture systems. Estimated employment in marine aquaculture was 200-300 in 1997. This figure includes slaughter, gutting filleting, cooling/freezing and packing and sales for further processing. It is estimated that 613 people are employed in freshwater trout production. A further 85 people (FTEs) are estimated to be employed in eel farming. The inland fishery is estimated to provide employment for 5 people or less (FTE).

The Danish processing industry is highly capitalised. In 1998 there were a total of 193 fish processing and preservation factories with a total production output value of ECU 1.19 billion. The processing industry (all sectors including fishmeal) in Denmark employed a total of 7,650 people  in 1998.

Finland
In 1998 the Finnish fleet comprised of 3,979 vessels with a total capacity of 24,170 GRT and power of 219,745 kW. The majority of these vessels were small with an average size of 6 GRT and power of 55kW. In terms of numbers, the coastal fishery constitutes the largest segment with 3,640 vessels. In terms of volume and value of catches the pelagic trawler segment (which consists of 239 vessels) is the most important. This segment targets herring and sprat and operates throughout the Baltic Sea but the main fishing grounds are in the Bothnian Sea.

Key features of the Finnish fisheries are shown in Table 6. In 1998, there were 2,950 registered fishers, of which about 1,000 are full-time. For Finland as a whole 92% of the fishing workforce is male; however in some areas, such as Varsinais–Suomi the percentage of female fishers is as high as 18%.

In 1998 the Finnish catch totalled 115,178 tonnes valued at ECU 20.3 million In terms of volume and value the Baltic herring was the most important with total landing of 85,545 tonnes valued at ECU 11.9 million. Other important species were salmon, vendace, sprat and cod.  

Table 6: Outputs and employment in Finnish fishery sector, 1998

 

Activity

Production

Employment

Tonnes

ECU million

Marine fishing

115,178

20.3

2950

Marine aquaculture

13,269

32.1

381

Inland aquaculture

2,755

6.7

270

Inland fishing

4,568

5.8

995

Processing

38,7111

80.0

560

Source: Professional Marine Fishery 1998 and Professional Inland Fishery 1998; Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute 2000 

1  raw material usage

Coastal aquaculture is concentrated in South-western Finland and produced 13,269 tonnes, mainly rainbow trout, in 1998. Inland aquaculture produced a further 2,755 tonnes. The aquaculture industry employed 651 people. Freshwater fisheries in Finland yielded 4,568 tonnes of fish (ECU 5.8 million) with the main species fished being vendace. There are almost 995 registered commercial fishers in inland waters, but for only 230 of these was fishing the principle source of income.

In 1998 there were around 172 establishments engaged in fish processing. The industry is highly concentrated with the 10 largest companies accounting for over 50% of the production volume. The total amount of fish (mainly Baltic herring and farmed rainbow trout) processed for human consumption was 38,711 tonnes, of which 85% tonnes was domestic production and the rest was imported raw material.

France
In France  there were 8,836 registered fishing vessels in 1998, with a tonnage of 209,460 GRT and power of

1,141,528 kW. Around 75% of the vessels were less than 12m in length. Fishing employed an estimated 19,136 (FTE) persons in 1998, including 3,687 professional fishers in the Overseas Departments of Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guyana and Réunion (where there is also a large informal fishing sector for which there are no statistics).

The main production and employment data relating to the French fishery sector are shown in Table 7.  

 Table 7: Outputs and employment in French fishery sector, 1998

  

Activity

Production

Employment

Tonnes

ECU million

Marine fishing

550,198

932.4

19,163

Marine aquaculture

208,065

359.1

14,055

Inland aquaculture

57,706

151.6

1,213

Inland fishing

4,540

14.4

2,501

Mareyage

N/a

1,367.0

4,007

Secondary processing1

400,900

2,100.6

11,899

Auctions

N/a

652.9

819

IFREMER, Données économiques maritimes françaises

1  1997

Marine capture fisheries landed a total of 550,198 tonnes valued at ECU 932.4 million in 1998. Around 18% of the value landed was in frozen form (processed at sea). In addition the Overseas Departments recorded landings of 27,008 tonnes in 1998.

Processing is split into primary processing and wholesaling (mareyage) and secondary processing. The output value of mareyage in 1998 was recorded as ECU 1.4 billion. This activity employed 4,007 people registered in over 300 enterprises, with the majority (42%) being located in Brittany. Secondary processing in 1997 produced a further ECU 2.1 billion of output value and employed 11,899 people in 173 enterprises. Auction hall and fish market employment in 1998 totalled 819 FTE in 43 establishments and sales amounted to ECU 652.9 million.

Germany
In 1998 the German fleet consisted of 2,373 vessels with a gross tonnage of 75,103 GT and power of 171,457 kW. Of the total, 76 % of fishing vessels were less than 10 metres in length and only 5% over 20m in length. The majority of the vessels (approximately 1,800) were small coastal fishing boats under 12 metres in length, fishing for demersal species and herring in the Baltic and North Seas. The deep-sea segment based in Bremerhaven, Cuxhaven and Rostock consisted of 12 vessels, and fishes in EU and international waters. The cutter segment accounted for another 477 vessels. A majority of the vessels within this segment are beam trawlers, fishing for flatfish and shrimps in the North Sea.

The main production and employment data relating to the German fishery sector are shown in Table 8.  

 Table 8: Outputs and employment in German fishery sector, 1998

  

Activity

Production

Employment1

Tonnes

ECU million

Marine fishing

94,272

84.4

2,932

Marine aquaculture

22,405

11.5

40

Inland aquaculture1

36,664

88.0

2,825

Inland fishing1

52,338

N/a

329

Processing1

N/a

1,273

11,280

Source: Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten, 1999. Annual Report on German Fisheries 1999, BMELF infomiert 

1  indicates 1997 data

 In 1998 the German fleet landed 94,272 tonnes of fish; the most important catches were cod (10,398 tonnes) and brown shrimp (11,151 tonnes). Most fishers are full-time.  Employment in the ancillary industries such as construction and repair of fishing vessels was estimated to total 633 in 1997.  Coastal  aquaculture consists of mussel production, and the number employed is likely to be under-estimated in the above table. Inland aquaculture production (mainly trout and carp) employed 2,825 persons in 1997, in the production of nearly 37,000 tonnes of trout and carp. The total catch from inland fisheries in 1998 was 52,338 tonnes, mainly of vendace, pike and pike-perch.

Germany has a large fish processing industry with a total production output value of 1,273 million ECU in 1997. The processing industry is relatively independent of the German and EU landings, as it relies largely on imported raw materials from third countries, and in particular, Norway. The North Sea centres of Bremerhaven, Cuxhaven and Hamburg account for almost 70% of the 11,280 processing jobs recorded in 1997.

Greece
In 1998 the Greek fleet consisted of 20,243 vessels with a gross tonnage of 111,933 GT and power of 654,199 kW. An estimated 94% of registered vessels are less than 12m in length. Between 1991 and 1997 there was an 8% decrease in the number of vessels. The decrease in the number of smaller boats was relatively modest, less than 2%, but the trawler segment experienced a 23% decline, and vessels fishing in the Atlantic a 55% decline.

The main production and employment data relating to the fisheries sector are shown in Table 9.  

Table 9: Outputs and employment in the Greek fisheries sector, 1997.

  

Activity

Production

Employment

Tonnes

ECU million

Marine fishing

124,386

458.2

41,251

Marine aquaculture

52,263

169.4

2,910

Inland aquaculture

2,684

8.7

254

Inland fishing

16,0001

N/a

2,701

Processing

N/a

89.8

2,409

Sources:

http://www.statistics.gr/en/data/tables/table78.htm

Regional Socio-economic Studies on Employment and the Level of Dependency on Fishing, (Lot 11 - Greece), European Commission, Directorate General for Fisheries, 1999

1 Data for 1998

 

Landings totalled some 124,386 tonnes in 1997. Of the 41,251 employed in marine capture fishing, an estimated 81% work in inshore fisheries, 17% in the offshore fisheries and 2% overseas (Footnote 1). An estimated 8% of the fishing sector workforce are female, engaged in net repair and gear preparation. Marine farming of bass and bream is a significant economic activity in Greece. About 65% of the production of 52,263 tonnes is exported, mainly to Italy. Fish processing is relatively less important in Greece than in other EU Member States. The majority of the fish processing takes place in Thessaloniki, Attica and Kavala. Most processing facilities are old and rely on both local production and imports from abroad. The processing sector in Greece provided employment for 1,455 full time and 954 part time workers. Women made up 32% of those employed in this sector.

Ireland
In Ireland there were 1,246 registered fishing vessels in 1998. Total tonnage in the fleet in 1998 was

61,082 GRT with a power of 190,625 kW. Approximately 70% of all registered vessels are classed as inshore vessels (less than 15m in length and operating within 12 miles of the coast).

  The main production and employment data relating to the fisheries sector are shown in Table 11.  

Table 11: Outputs and employment in the Irish fisheries sector, 1998.

  

Activity

Production

Employment

Tonnes

ECU million

Marine fishing

324,8431

193.9

6,274

Marine aquaculture

39,980

77.3

2,1982

Inland aquaculture

1,7992

4.62

N/a

Inland fishing

895

3.4

150

Processing

145,000

285

2,746

Sources: Department of Marine and Natural Resources, 1999. Fishery Statistics, 1998. Central Statistics Office, Ireland.

http://www.cso.ie/principalstats/pristat6.html

1  excluding oysters, clams and farmed mussels

2 1997 data

 

The number of fishers employed in marine capture fishing in 1997 totalled 6,274 (5,494 FTEs). The majority of these fishers were located on the West Coast of Ireland. Over half of Ireland’s fishers are classified as working in inshore fisheries. Total landings volume increased from 225,000 tonnes in 1989 to 324,843 in 1998. Approximately 22% of landings (by value) were made into foreign ports, mainly in Northern Ireland. The Irish fleet targets a variety of species; the main ones are cod, whiting, herring, horse mackerel, mackerel, crab, Nephrops and lobster. In recent years demersal and pelagic species have been equally important in value terms, but with the bulk of the landings coming from the pelagic sector.

The Irish marine aquaculture industry has grown from a production of 5,815 tonnes (ECU 3.3 million) in 1980 to 39,980 tonnes, worth ECU 194 million, in 1998. Production of salmon has accounted for 82% by value of this expansion. Rope culture of mussels and oyster production have also steadily increased; shellfish production was recorded as 23,200 tonnes (ECU 17 million) in 1998. In 1997 marine aquaculture sector provided employment for 2,198 persons (estimated to be 1,092 FTEs). There are approximately 150 people employed in fishing for eels in inland waters.

The Irish fish processing industries had a throughput of 145,000 tonnes in 1998 with a total value ECU 285 million. Ireland is a net exporter of fish products, with exports predominately in mackerel, horse mackerel and salmon. The processing sector employed 2,746 people in 1998; 57% of these workers are part-time and the largest concentration of processing employment is in County Donegal, where over 1,000 people are involved.

Italy
In 1997 the Italian fleet consisted of 16,325 vessels with a gross tonnage of 260,603 GT and power of 1,513,677 kW. Many of the vessels are small; some 87% are less than 25 GT. Only 5% of vessels are less than 5 years old.

The main production and employment data relating to the fisheries sector are shown in Table 10. In 1997 the Italian fleet landed 441,241 tonnes of fish valued at ECU 1,523.6 million. Around 85,000 tonnes of the landings were molluscs. The landings of the purse seining fleet consisted mainly of sardines and anchovies, about half of which go to processing. The catch from the smaller vessels is mainly for human consumption, comprises a wide variety of species, and is often sold direct to local fish markets or to restaurants without processing or going through wholesalers. The main centres of the fishing industry are Napoli, Venezia, Bari and Trapani.  

Table 10: Outputs and employment in the Italian fisheries sector, 1997.

   

Activity

Production

Employment

Tonnes

ECU million

Marine fishing

441,241

1,523.6

43,289

Marine aquaculture

157,719

221.4

8,665

Inland aquaculture

54,200

135.6

2,142

Inland fishing

10,393

N/a

N/a

Processing

N/a

582.2

6.447

Source: Regional Socio-economic Studies on Employment and the Level of Dependency on Fishing, (Lots 12,13 and 14 - Italy), European Commission, Directorate General for Fisheries, 1999

  

Mussel, eel, seabass and seabream are the main species farmed in marine aquaculture, whilst inland aquaculture consists mainly of trout farms, which are relatively small (with on average only 2 or 3 people working at each). Some carp and tench is also produced. Inland fishing is relatively unimportant, with an output of just over 10,000 tonnes.

The Italian fish processing sector is broadly divided into small scale artisanal processing and larger scale industrial processing.  There were 393 processing firms in Italy in 1997, plus 40 industrial canning firms, concentrating on tuna and sardines. Production of processed tuna products amounted to 34,000 tonnes in 1997. Anchovy processing occurs mainly on the Adriatic coastline. The tuna-canning sector is coming under pressure from cheaper third country imports, and many factories now use frozen imported loins to reduce labour costs.  Sardine processing is also under pressure from imports; production in 1997 was only 2,000 tonnes. In 1997 the processing sector provided employment for 6,447 people. In contrast to the harvesting sector, many of these are women (up to 87% in the case of Sardinia and Sicily) and significant numbers are part time workers (in some regions up to 28% of the total employed).

Luxembourg
The Luxembourg fishery sector is very small, comprising only of one fish farm (employing 5 persons) and some importers.

Netherlands
In 1998 the Dutch fleet consisted of 1,040 vessels with a gross tonnage of 174,344 GT and power of 482,263 kW. The fleet included 416 cutters, 14 distant water freezer trawlers and 22 inland cockle vessels. Since 1991 the cutter fleet has decreased by 25% in number (from 556). In addition, vessel numbers in the cockle fleet have halved, but the number of freezer trawlers has increased by 1 vessel. Dutch vessels are large relative to the fleets of some other EU Member States; some 55% of vessels are over 24 metres in length.

The main production and employment data relating to the fisheries sector are shown in Table 12.  

  Table 12: Outputs and employment in the Irish fisheries sector, 1997

   

Activity

Production

Employment

Tonnes

ECU million

Marine fishing

546,4771

358.1

2,572

Marine aquaculture

95,640

60.5

312

Inland aquaculture

2,000

15.3

92

Inland fishing

2293

N/a

530

Processing

N/a

464.5

6,0512

Source: Regional Socio-economic Studies on Employment and the Level of Dependency on Fishing, (Lots 16- Netherlands), European Commission, Directorate General for Fisheries, 1999

Personal Communication, Central bureau of Statistics, 2000

1  1998

2 includes 2,751 employed in fish distribution

 

In 1998, landings amounted to 546,477 tonnes  (70% of which was landed by the cutter sector).  The main species were herring, horse mackerel and mackerel. High value landings include cod, plaice and sole. In 1997, there were 2,572 people employed in the capture-fishing sector in the Netherlands.  The majority of these fishers (1,880) were employed onboard cutters.

Mussel production is the main marine aquaculture activity and, along with some oyster cultivation, provided employment for 312 people in 1997. A total of 92 people  (of whom 11 are female) are employed in inland aquaculture production. One third are part time. The main species produced are eel and catfish. Inland fishing (mainly for eels) employs 530 persons (on the Ijsselmeer and in inland waterways and lakes). In 1997 there were an estimated 6,051 involved in the processing and distribution sectors. About one third of process workers are women. The main activities are in the processing of flat fish and shellfish.

Portugal
In 1998, in mainland Portugal there were 11,579 registered vessels with a tonnage of 123,923 GT and power of 393,671 kW. This includes 2,214 vessels registered in the Azores Islands and Madeira. Multipurpose vessels comprise the majority of the fleet (96%). Most vessels of this type are small (with an average size of 4 GRT and power of 19.5 kW) and catch a wide range of species using different gears in almost exclusively coastal operations.

The main production and employment data relating to the fisheries sector are shown in Table 13.  

  Table 13: Outputs and employment in the Portuguese fisheries sector, 1998

 

Activity

Production

Employment

Tonnes

ECU million

Marine fishing

189,529

252.4

27,197

Marine aquaculture

7,0811

47.51

5,257

Inland aquaculture

1,7001

6.21

83

Inland fishing

1,320

3.1

1,9393

Processing

149,8202

503.7

6,294

Sources: Estastísticas da pesca 1999, INE 2000 and Departamento de Emprego Trabalho e Formação Profisional, 2000

1 1997 data

2 finished product

3 1996 data

 

Landings for Portugal Mainland were in the region of 164,313 tonnes and those in the Portuguese islands were about 25,216 tonnes in 1998. The most important landings are sardine (19%), octopus and cuttlefish (13% of value of mainland landings). Tuna accounts for half the catch in the Islands. There were 21,402 fishers registered in Portugal Mainland in 1999, 3,966 in the Azores (60% on the island of Sao Miguel) and 1,292 in Madeira.

In the south of Portugal, marine aquaculture is undertaken by viveiros who manage the natural production of clams in estuarine waters; there were about 4,800 people involved in this sector, mostly situated in the South.  In addition there are 130 finfish enterprises on the mainland providing employment for 457 people. Production is mostly of seabass and seabream. Freshwater aquaculture involved 27 freshwater fish farms employing a total of 83 people. In 1996, there were 1,939 professional fishing licences issued to inland fishers in Portugal. There are no significant aquaculture or inland fishing activities on the island groups of Azores and Madeira.

In 1997 there were 136 processing establishments on the mainland, of which 29 produce canned or other preserved fish, and the remainder undertake processing and distribution of salted, fresh and frozen fish.

Processing is dominated by the production of bacalhau (dry salted cod), which account for 37% of output volume and 46% by value (and almost exclusively, uses imported raw material). Total value of processing output (sales) in 1998 was ECU 503.7 million, corresponding to 138,653 tonnes of finished product. Industrial canning on the mainland uses mainly imported tuna, and in the Azores uses both locally caught and imported fish.

Spain
In 1998 the Spanish fleet consisted of 17,972 vessels with a gross tonnage of 589,359 GT and power of 1,474,421 kW. Although it has fewer vessels than Greece, Spain has one of the largest fishing capacities in the EU, accounting for 29% of tonnage and 18 % of power. The greatest part of the Spanish fleet is made up of inshore vessels, with 76.5% of vessels being less than 12m in length in 1998. 

The main production and employment data relating to the fisheries sector are shown in Table 14.  

  Table 14: Outputs and employment in the Spanish fisheries sector, 1997

   

Activity

Production

Employment2

Tonnes

ECU million

Marine fishing

964,6031

1,842.53

68,297

Marine aquaculture

208,427

168.6

14,500

Inland aquaculture

25,266

43.4

300

Inland fishing

10,000

N/a

N/a

Processing

N/a

2,241.2

15,449

 

Source: Regional Socio-economic Studies on Employment and the Level of Dependency on Fishing, (Lots 4,5 and 6 -  Spain), European Commission, Directorate General for Fisheries, 1999 and Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, 1999. Encuesta Industrial de Productos de 1998. INE.  

1

Excludes non-EU landings (124,000t)

2

1996 data

3

Estimates based on 1996 unit values

   

In 1996, recorded fish landings were 964,603 tonnes. The main centres are Galicia, Huelva and Cadiz, and the Canary Islands. The catches are characterised by a wide range of species, reflecting the global reach of the Spanish fleet. Tuna is caught in the Indian Ocean and West Africa; South Atlantic fisheries yield hake and squid, and the North Atlantic, cod, halibut and redfish. In the Mediterranean, the main landings by volume are of mackerel, horse mackerel and sardine. In 1996 there were 68,297 fishers in Spain (include shore-based employees of fishing companies). By far the heaviest concentration of these fishers is in the region of Galicia where there 25,710 fishers, one the main European centres of the fishing industry. Collection and culture of shellfish also employs a large number of persons in Galicia, where in 1996, over 9,000 licences were issued to individuals for collection of shellfish.

Marine aquaculture is dominated by the small-scale culture of mussels, which is an important source of employment for an estimated 14,500 persons, again mainly in Galicia. Marine aquaculture in other regions is limited to relatively few mollusc and cage culture sites. Professional inland fishing is not pursued extensively in Spain. Inland aquaculture comprises mainly of trout production. An estimated 300 persons are employed in Northern Spain in this activity.

Traditionally the Spanish fish processing sector was based on fish canning (mainly tuna and sardine).  Nowadays, however, the production of frozen value added fish products is the major activity. In 1996, there were 15,449 persons employed in the fish processing sector; more than 79% were located in Galicia and the Basque country. An estimated 56% of employees in fish processing are women.

Sweden
In 1998, the Swedish fleet comprised of some 2,123 vessels. Around 60% (by tonnage) of the vessels were located in the West Coast area of West Goetland, fishing both in the North Sea and the Baltic. In 1998 the Swedish landings amounted to 400,945 tonnes valued at ECU 117.2 million, mostly from the Baltic Sea. In terms of value, cod was the most important species accounting for about 30% of the value. Catches of fish targeted for reduction to fishmeal and oil (mostly Baltic herring and sprat) amounted to 80% by volume, but only 30% by value of the catch. Around 35% of catches by Swedish vessels are landed abroad, mostly in Denmark. In 1999 there were 2,132 commercial fishers in Sweden.

Marine aquaculture in Sweden comprises blue mussel production (1,425 tonnes) and cage farming of rainbow trout (5,040 tonnes, which includes some fresh water production of this species). The production value of the aquaculture sector was ECU 13.9 million. In 1998 the total number of persons employed in aquaculture amounted to 794 people. There are also about 221 commercial fishers on Swedish inland waters. The main species caught are pike, perch, vendace species, eel and crayfish.

There were 160 processing establishments in Sweden in 1997, mainly processing cod and herring. The Swedish processing industry imports 55% of its raw material, which includes substantial amounts of frozen whitefish fillet blocks. Total production value in 1997 was ECU 346.8 million. The processing sector in Sweden employs 1,933 persons and women make up 52% of the persons employed.

United Kingdom
In 1998 the United Kingdom`s fleet consisted of 8,658 vessels with a gross tonnage of 253,409 GT and power of 1,047,690 kW. Of these vessels 63% were less than 10m in length. In England, the largest concentration of vessels is in the Southwest and Humberside, and in Scotland the main centres are Peterhead and Fraserburgh.

The main production and employment data relating to the fisheries sector are shown in Table 12.  

Table 15: Outputs and employment in the UK fisheries sector, 1997

   

Activity

Production

Employment

Tonnes

ECU million

Marine fishing1

613,900

803.0

17,847

Marine aquaculture

113,425

350.9

1,617

Inland aquaculture

16,109

33.6

850

Inland fishing

1,481

N/a

N/a

Processing2

433,000

873.0

18,140

Sources:

MAFF, 1999. Sea Fisheries Statistics, 1998. United Kingdom Government Statistical Service, The Stationery Office.

Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Fisheries Division, 2000. Sea and Inland Fisheries Report 1998.

Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Fisheries Division, 2000. Marine Aquaculture and Trout Production.

1

Excludes non-EU landings (205,000t)

2

1997

         

In 1998, total landings were 613,900 tonnes. The main species caught were haddock (83,400 tonnes), cod (77,200 tonnes), mackerel (179,700 tonnes) and herring (104,600 tonnes). The main landing sites were Peterhead (112,100 tonnes) and Lerwick (66,500 tonnes), in North East Scotland and the Shetland Isles respectively. UK vessels land over 40% of their catch in other countries (mainly Denmark, Norway and Germany); this includes substantial volumes of pelagic fish and shellfish caught by Scottish vessels. Employment within the UK capture fishing sector totals 17,847 (including 14,394 full-time and 3,453 part-time fishers).

The main marine aquaculture activity is salmon farming, which takes place in West Scotland and Shetland Islands. Production of this species in 1997 was 99,197 tonnes, value ECU 339.4 million. In addition there was some mussel production in England and Wales (about 13,000 tonnes per annum). The marine aquaculture industry in Scotland employs 1,617 people, of which 1,183 are full- time and 434 are part-time. Inland aquaculture in the UK is mainly trout farming. In 1998 this produced 16,109 tonnes and employed about 850 fte in England and Wales. Freshwater aquaculture in Scotland consists of both trout production and salmon smolt production.

The UK has one of the EU's largest fish processing industries. Dermersal species account for 83% of the total volume of fish (433,000 tonnes) processed in England and Wales. The main processing activities include primary processing of white fish derived from North Sea fisheries and value added processing of fish and shellfish. Salmon processing is also a significant activity in the west of Scotland. The main locations for the fish processing sector are Humberside in north of England and NE Scotland. In 1997 the processing industry in the UK employed 18,140. About 9,598 were employed in England and Wales (mainly Grimsby, with 2,300 ftes) and about 8,500 were employed in Scotland.  An estimated 83% of jobs are full time; women occupied an estimated 49% of all jobs in this sector. 

1. Regional Socio-economic Studies on Employment and the Level of Dependency on Fishing; Lot No.11: Greece, Final Report, MacAlister Elliott and Partners, 1999.